[*] Professor of Law and Director of Advanced Studies, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Law. B.A., Kalamazoo College, 1967; J.D., New York University, 1970; Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1975. Member, New York Bar. Return to text.

[1] See Leonard L. Riskin, Mediator Orientations, Strategies and Techniques, 12 ALTERNATIVES TO HIGH COST LITIG. 111, 111 (1994). Return to text.

[2] See Leonard L. Riskin, Understanding Mediators' Orientations, Strategies, and Techniques: A Grid for the Perplexed, 1 HARV. NEGOTIATION L. REV. 7, 23-24 (1996). Return to text.

[3] See id. at 44. Return to text.

[4] Kimberlee K. Kovach & Lela P. Love, "Evaluative" Mediation Is an Oxymoron, 14 ALTERNATIVES TO HIGH COST LITIG. 31, 31 (1996). Return to text.

[5] Riskin, supra note 2, at 9. Return to text.

[6] See id. Return to text.

[7] See Videotape: Interview of Professor Robert A. Baruch Bush, Hofstra Law School (Professor Lela P. Love, Clinical Professor of Law, Cardozo Law School 1995) (on file with Professor Love). Return to text.

[8] Riskin, supra note 2, at 12-13, 40 (footnotes omitted). Return to text.

[9] See id. at 13. Return to text.

[10] Id. Return to text.

[11] See id. (preferring categorization over exclusion). Return to text.

[12] See id. at 40-41. Return to text.

[13] See Kovach & Love, supra note 4, at 31. See generally ROBERT A. BARUCH BUSH & JOSEPH P. FOLGER, THE PROMISE OF MEDIATION: RESPONDING TO CONFLICT THROUGH EMPOWERMENT AND RECOGNITION (1994) (arguing that a problem-solving approach to mediation can lead to directives from the mediator that overshadow the goal of satisfying the parties' needs). Return to text.

[14] See Kovach & Love, supra note 4, at 31. Return to text.

[15] See id. Return to text.

[16] See id. Return to text.

[17] See id. Return to text.

[18] See Lela P. Love, The Top Ten Reasons Why Mediators Should Not Evaluate, 24 FLA. ST. U. L. REV. 937, 948 (1997). Return to text.

[19] See id. Return to text.

[20] Riskin, supra note 2, at 13. Return to text.

[21] LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN, PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS para. 67, at 32e (G.E.M. Anscombe trans., MacMillan Co. 3d ed. 1958) (1953). Return to text.

[22] This comment was made by several experienced civil trial mediators attending a master class for mediators conducted by the author and Lela P. Love in St. Augustine, Florida, from May 31 to June 2, 1995. For a statement of a similar position advocating flexibility, see ERIC GALTON, REPRESENTING CLIENTS IN MEDIATION 4 (1994). Return to text.

[23] See Riskin, supra note 2, at 40-41 (discussing criteria for selecting mediators). Return to text.

[24] See id. at 41 (asserting that flexible mediators who are able to change orientation as needed are available). Return to text.

[25] See Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 197 (1964) (Stewart, J., concurring) (observing of obscenity that "I know it when I see it"). Return to text.

[26] See Kovach & Love, supra note 4, at 31. Return to text.

[27] See Love, supra note 18, at 939. Return to text.

[28] See Kovach & Love, supra note 4, at 32. Return to text.

[29] For a related discussion, see CHIEF JUDGE'S N.Y. STATE COURT ALTERNATIVE DISP. RESOL. PROJECT, COURT- REFERRED ADR IN N.Y. STATE 7 (1996). Return to text.

[30] See Riskin, supra note 2, at 41 (allowing that each approach has potential advantages and disadvantages). Return to text.

[31] See id. at 38-41. Return to text.

[32] See Love, supra note 18, at 940-41. Return to text.

[33] See Riskin, supra note 2, at 26. Return to text.

[34] H.L.A. HART, THE CONCEPT OF LAW 80 (1961). Return to text.

[35] Riskin, supra note 2, at 24. Return to text.

[36] See Riskin, supra note 2, at 39-41. Return to text.

[37] See id. at 40-41. This is not to say, of course, that the person who is most successful economically as a mediator or who services the largest clientele must be the most adaptable, for it may be the case, as Riskin's analysis suggests, that most of the users of mediation services prefer only one type of orientation. Return to text.

[38] See generally DEBORAH TANNEN, YOU JUST DON'T UNDERSTAND: WOMEN AND MEN IN CONVERSATION (1990) (explaining gender influences on communication); CAROL GILLIGAN, IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND WOMEN'S DEVELOPMENT (1993) (proposing that women and men undergo different types of psychological development because of their differing perceptions of the world). Return to text.

[39] See TANNEN, supra note 38, at 149. Return to text.

[40] For related comments and perspectives that analyze the difference in impact between a listener's guiding a discussion and the speaker's engaging in uninterrupted exposition, see the discussion in Freud's autobiographical study of his change of methods from hypnosis to psychoanalysis in THE FREUD READER 13-19 (Peter Gay ed., 1989). Return to text.

[41] Indeed, this is the point of the criticism advanced by ADR critics. See Owen M. Fiss, Against Settlement, 93 YALE L.J. 1073, 1076 (1984) (arguing that inequality of resources between the parties can skew settlement proposals); see also Trina Grillo, The Mediation Alternative: Process Dangers for Women, 100 YALE L.J. 1545, 1550 (1991) (asserting that individuals who feel compelled to maintain a connection to another person are at a disadvantage in mediation). The argument I advance in the text suggests, contrary to these critics, that those very procedures, when used in an allegedly mediatory context, might serve to reinforce inequalities rather than balance them, thereby undermining the common aspiration of constructing a fair environment for dialogue. Return to text.

[42] The phrase, "bargaining in the shadow of the law," gained widespread currency following the publication of Robert H. Mnookin and Lewis Kornhauser, Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce, 88 YALE L.J. 950 (1979). Return to text.

[43] Riskin, supra note 2, at 24 (emphasis added) (footnote omitted). Return to text.

[44] See id. at 26. Return to text.

[45] Id. at 26-27 (emphasis added) (footnotes omitted). Return to text.

[46] Riskin, supra note 1, at 111 (emphasis added). Return to text.

[47] Riskin, supra note 2, at 28 (emphasis added) (footnote omitted). Return to text.

[48] Riskin, supra note 1, at 111. Return to text.

[49] See id. at 113. Riskin suggests that because the facilitative-broad mediator "emphasizes the participants' role in defining the problems and in developing and evaluating proposals, the facilitative-broad mediator does not need to fully understand the legal posture of the case." Id. Return to text.

[50] Riskin, supra note 2, at 28 (emphasis added); see also id. at 51 n.68 (providing a more extensive, illustrative list of the types of questions that the facilitative-narrow mediator might ask). Return to text.

[51] See id. at 29. Return to text.

[52] Id. at 26-27. Return to text.

[53] RICHARD H. RALSTON, DEFENSE RESEARCH INST., INC., ADR FOR THE DEFENSE SEMINAR: "EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY AND MEDIATION" 3 (1994). Return to text.

[54] For the original, and I believe the most instructive, explanation of the distributive/integrative distinction in bargaining theory, see RICHARD E. WALTON & ROBERT B. MCKERSIE, A BEHAVIORAL THEORY OF LABOR NEGOTIATIONS 11-183 (2d ed. 1991). Return to text.

[55] Lon L. Fuller, Mediation—Its Forms and Functions, 44 S. CAL. L. REV. 305, 325 (1971). Return to text.

[56] For a related discussion of the relationship between negotiation processes and democratic theory, see Joseph B. Stulberg, Cultural Diversity and Democratic Institutions: What Role for Negotiations?, 10 MEDIATION Q. 249, 249 (1993). Return to text.

[57] Mr. Arafat's Entourage, WASH. TIMES, Oct. 2, 1996, at A20. Return to text.

[58] See LAWRENCE M. WATSON, JR., THE FLA. BAR, ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN FLORIDA: EFFECTIVE LEGAL REPRESENTATION IN MEDIATION 2-14 to -16 (1995). Return to text.

[59] Riskin, supra note 2, at 40-41 (footnote omitted). Return to text.

[60] Id. (emphasis added) (footnote omitted). Return to text.