[**] Special thanks to my mentor, Donald J. Weidner, the former Dean of the Florida State University College of Law and to Debra, Billy, and Christine for their outstanding support. Return to text.

[1] See Bob Marshall, Reform Needs to Get on Fast Track; Florida Voters Putting Louisiana on Notice, NEW ORLEANS TIME- PICAYUNE, Nov. 20, 1994, at C18. Return to text.

[2] See FLA. CONST. art. X, § 16. The Amendment, now enshrined in the Florida Constitution as section 16 of article X, provides as follows:

Section 16. Limiting Marine Net Fishing— (a) The marine resources of the State of Florida belong to all of the people of the state and should be conserved and managed for the benefit of the state, its people, and future generations. To this end the people hereby enact limitations on marine net fishing in Florida waters to protect saltwater finfish, shellfish, and other marine animals from unnecessary killing, overfishing, and waste. (b) For purposes of catching or taking any saltwater finfish, shellfish or other marine animals in Florida waters: (1) No gill nets or other entangling nets shall be used in Florida waters; and (2) In addition to the prohibition set forth in (1), no other type of net containing more than 500 square feet of mesh area shall be used in nearshore and inshore Florida waters. Additionally, no more than two such nets, which shall not be connected, shall be used from any vessel, and no person not on a vessel shall use more than one such net in nearshore and inshore Florida waters. (c) For purposes of this section: (1) "gill net" means one or more walls of netting which captures saltwater finfish by ensnaring or entangling them in meshes of the net by the gills, and "entangling net" means a drift net, trammell net, stab net, or any other net which captures saltwater finfish, shellfish, or other marine animals by causing all or part of heads, fins, legs, or other body parts to become entangled or ensnared in the meshes of the net, but a hand thrown cast net is not a gill or an entangling net. Return to text.

[3] Fishermen is used for both men and women who fish. Return to text.

[4] See Phil Willon, Anglers Poised for Net Ban Protest, TAMPA TRIB., June 27, 1995, at B3. Return to text.

[5] See Phil Willon, Net-Ban Foes File Appeal; Fishermen Win a Compromise on Trawls and Await a Ruling on an Injunction, TAMPA TRIB., June 28, 1995, at B1. Return to text.

[6] See id. Return to text.

[7] See id. When the governor's spokesperson made this statement, the Amendment had already been voted on. In spite of the spokesperson's claim, the best opportunity to attack the Amendment was before it was voted on, not after. See infra Part III. Return to text.

[8] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d 997 (Fla. 1993). Return to text.

[9] See id. at 997 n.1. Return to text.

[10] See discussion infra Part III.B. (explaining that an advisory opinion on a citizen ballot initiative will only consider these two legal questions). Return to text.

[11] 666 So. 2d 882 (Fla. 1996). Return to text.

[12] See id. at 885-86; see also discussion infra Part IV. Return to text.

[13] See, e.g., Bob Slaff, Fish a Limited Resource, CAPITAL, June 3, 1996, at C10 (discussing that the world's ocean fish resource is finite and is the prize in a developing tug-of-war for control of the resource). Return to text.

[14] This Comment does not explore the different processes and methods used in other states. For an excellent discussion of alternatives based on the schemes in other states see P.K. Jameson & Marsha Hosack, Citizen Initiatives in Florida: An Analysis of Florida's Constitutional Initiative Process, Issues, and Alternatives, 23 FLA. ST. U. L. REV. 417 (1995). Return to text.

[15] Painted on the Water Tower in Niceville, Florida. The Boggy Bayou Mullet Festival is famed for its "Mullet Dogs." Return to text.

[16] 149 Fla. 308, 5 So. 2d 608 (1942). Return to text.

[17] Id. at 323, 5 So. 2d at 614 (Terrell, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[18] See id., 5 So. 2d at 615. Return to text.

[19] See Robert P. Jones, Florida's Net Ban—A Study of The Causes and Effects, (visited July 30, 1997) (copy on file with FLA. ST. U. L. REV., Tallahassee, Fla.). Jones notes that "[b]y 1895, Florida had a well established infrastructure available to the commercial net fishing industry." Id. Return to text.

[20] See id. Return to text.

[21] See id. Return to text.

[22] See id. Return to text.

[23] Tony Bartelme, The Economics of a Sea Tragedy, POST & COURIER (Charleston, S.C.), June 23, 1996, at A20. Return to text.

[24] See id.

It's a principle that shows how self-interest overpowers community interest, how a common area is easily destroyed when it's owned by everyone. It shows why people build more boats than they need, catch more fish than they should —why people eat their seeds. This is what's happening in our oceans. . . .[W]e have trawlers as long as football fields with nets that scoop up 100 tons of fish in one pass. We have millions of recreational anglers catching fish. We have pollution taking fish, and developers and dam builders destroying marine habitats.

Id. Return to text.

[25] See Holland v. Roberts, 149 Fla. 308, 324, 5 So. 2d 608, 615 (1942) (Terrell, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[26] See Slaff, supra note 13. Return to text.

[27] See id. Return to text.

[28] See, e.g., Jones, supra note 19 (stating that there has always been controversy in Florida between commercial and sport fishermen). Return to text.

[29] See id. Return to text.

[30] See id. Return to text.

[31] See id. Return to text.

[32] See id.("There was no single, unified, statewide anti-net ban commercial fishing organization. There were only two statewide non-profit groups in Florida, Southeastern Fisheries Association and Organized Fishermen of Florida. There were numerous local commercial fishing groups without any professional representation or formalized structure."). Return to text.

[33] See Talbot "Sandy" D'Alemberte, Commentary to Art. I, § 10, Vol. 25A FLA. STAT. ANN. 16 (West 1991) (stating "[a]ll political power is inherent in the people"). Return to text.

[34] FLA. CONST. art. XI, § 5. Return to text.

[35] Id. §3. Return to text.

[36] See TALBOT D'ALEMBERTE, THE FLORIDA STATE CONSTITUTION: A REFERENCE GUIDE 148 (1991) [hereinafter GUIDE]. Return to text.

[37] See FLA. CONST. art. XI, § 3. Return to text.

[38] See Jones, supra note 19. Return to text.

[39] See id. (noting that members of SOS claimed that this was the most successful one day petition event in the history of America). Return to text.

[40] See FLA. CONST. art. XI, § 5. Return to text.

[41] See id. § 5(a). Return to text.

[42] See id. art. IV, § 10; FLA. STAT. § 16.061 (1995). Return to text.

[43] See id. art. V. § 3; FLA. STAT. § 16.061 (1995). Return to text.

[45] See Advisory Op. to the AttRy Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fi See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d 997 (Fla. 1993). Return to text.

[46] See id. at 997 n.1. Return to text.

[47] FLA. STAT. §101.161(1) (1995). Return to text.

[48] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Casino Authorization, Taxation and Regulation, 656 So. 2d 466, 468 (Fla. 1995). Return to text.

[49] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Tax Limitation, 644 So. 2d 71, 73 (Fla. 1994). Return to text.

[50] See Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d at 998-99 (Fla. 1993). Return to text.

[51] FLA. STAT. § 101.161(1) (1995). Return to text.

[52] Smith v. American Airlines, Inc., 606 So. 2d 618, 621 (Fla. 1992). Return to text.

[53] Id. at 620. Return to text.

[54] Casino Authorization, Taxation and Regulation, 656 So. 2d at 468. Return to text.

[55] See generally id. Return to text.

[56] See Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d at 998-99. Return to text.

[57] Id. at 999. Return to text.

[58] Id. Return to text.

[59] See Casino Authorization, Taxation and Regulation, 656 So. 2d at 468. Return to text.

[60] Id. at 467. Return to text.

[61] See id. at 468. Return to text.

[62] Id. Return to text.

[63] Id. Return to text.

[64] See FLA. STAT. § 509.242(1)(a) (1995) (defining a hotel as "any public lodging establishment containing sleeping room accommodations for 25 or more guests and providing the services generally provided by a hotel and recognized as a hotel in the community in which it is situated or by the industry"). However, the statutory definition of transient lodging is broader and includes some hotels and many types of motels, resort condominiums, transient apartments, rooming houses, and resort dwellings. Return to text.

[65] See Casino Authorization, Taxation and Regulation, 656 So. 2d at 469. Return to text.

[66] Id. Return to text.

[67] Id. Return to text.

[68] See id. Return to text.

[69] Id. Return to text.

[70] See Askew v. Firestone, 421 So. 2d 151, 156 (Fla. 1982). Return to text.

[71] See Casino Authorization, Taxation, and Regulation, 656 So. 2d at 469. Return to text.

[72] Id. Return to text.

[73] See FLA. STAT. §§ 370.021, .025, .027-.028 (1995). Return to text.

[74] 556 So. 2d 1104 (Fla. 1990). Return to text.

[75] See id. at 1105. Return to text.

[76] See FLA. STAT. § 370.027(1) (1995) ("[T]he Marine Fisheries Commission is delegated full rulemaking authority over marine life, with the exception of endangered species."). Return to text.

[77] See Davis, 556 So. 2d at 1106. Return to text.

[78] See id. However, Florida recently revised its Administrative Procedures Act (APA). Courts will probably hold agency rules to a higher standard in the future. For an excellent discussion of Florida's new APA, see Jim Rossi, The 1996 Revised Florida Administrative Procedure Act: A Survey of Major Provisions Affecting Florida Agencies, 24 FLA. ST. U. L. REV. 283 (1997). Return to text.

[79] Davis, 556 So. 2d at 1107. Strangely, during the net ban campaign, the MFC was silent on the extent and scope of fish regulations already in force. Return to text.

[80] FLA. CONST. art. X, § 16(b)(1) (emphasis added). Return to text.

[81] Id. § 16(b)(2) (emphasis added). Return to text.

[82] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Casinos, 644 So. 2d 71, 73 (Fla. 1994). Return to text.

[83] Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d 997, 999 (Fla. 1993).

84See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Authorization For and Regulation of Statewide System of Limited-Access Riverboat Gambling Casinos, 650 So. 2d 989, 991 (Fla. 1994). Return to text.

[85] See id. at 991. Return to text.

[86] See Id. Return to text.

[87] Id. Return to text.

[88] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d at 998-99. Return to text.

[89] FLA. CONST. art. XI, § 3. Return to text.

[90] City of Coral Gables v. Gray, 19 So. 2d. 318, 320 (Fla. 1949). Return to text.

[91] See Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Political Terms in Certain Elective Offices, 592 So. 2d 225, 227 (Fla. 1991). Return to text.

[92] 448 So. 2d 984 (Fla. 1984). Return to text.

[93] Id. at 993. Return to text.

[94] Id. at 990. Return to text.

[95] Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d 997, 999 (Fla. 1993). Return to text.

[96] See id. Return to text.

[97] See Jameson & Hosack, supra note 14, at 454. Return to text.

[98] 627 So. 2d 520 (Fla. 5th DCA 1993). Return to text.

[99] Id. at 524. Return to text.

[100] Id. Return to text.

[101] 632 So. 2d 1018 (Fla. 1994). Return to text.

[102] Id. at 1020. Return to text.

[103] Id. Return to text.

[104] See id. Return to text.

[105] See id. Return to text.

[106] See Lee v. Dowda, 155 Fla. 68, 73, 19 So. 2d 570, 572 (Fla. 1944). The court's opinion will only be persuasive as to issues it actually addressed. See Florida League of Cities v. Smith, 607 So. 2d 397, 399 (Fla. 1992). Return to text.

[107] League of Cities, 607 So. 2d at 399. Return to text.

[108] Mike Williams, Caught in the Gill Net-Ban: Florida Fishermen Say Conservation is Ending a Way of Life, ATLANTA J. & CONST., July 3, 1995, at 7B. Return to text.

[109] See generally, Restricts Laws Related to Discrimination, 632 So. 2d 1018 (Fla. 1994). The court does not have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of a proposed amendment when the case challenging the amendment originates upon a petition of the attorney general filed pursuant to section 16.061, Florida Statutes. See FLA. STAT. § 16.001 (1995). Return to text.

[110] See Restricts Laws Related to Discrimination, 632 So. 2d at 1019. Return to text.

[111] FLA. STAT. § 101.161(1) (1996 Supp.). Return to text.

[112] 632 So. 2d 1018 (Fla. 1994). Return to text.

[113] Id. at 1022 (Kogan, J., concurring). Return to text.

[114] Id. Return to text.

[115] 607 So. 2d 397 (Fla. 1992). Return to text.

[116] Restricts Laws Related to Discrimination, 632 So. 2d at 1023 (Kogan, J., concurring). Return to text.

[117] Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Homestead Valuation Limitation, 581 So. 2d 586 (Fla. 1991). Return to text.

[118] League of Cities, 607 So. 2d at 399. Return to text.

[119] See id. at 400. Return to text.

[120] Id. at 398. Return to text.

[121] Id. at 399. Return to text.

[122] See id. Return to text.

[123] See id. Return to text.

[124] See Adams v. Gunter, 238 So. 2d 824, 829 (Fla. 1970). Return to text.

[125] See Jones, supra note 19. Return to text.

[126] 607 So. 2d at 401 (Overton, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[127] See id. Return to text.

[128] See id. Return to text.

[129] 656 So. 2d 466 (Fla. 1995). Return to text.

[130] Id. at 469-70. Return to text.

[131] Id. at 470. Return to text.

[132] See Bruce v. Malloy, 150 Fla. 157, 158, 7 So. 2d 123, 124 (1942). Return to text.

[133] See id. at 158, 7 So. 2d at 124. Return to text.

[134] See id.

When any illegal net, trap or fishing device, or illegally used net, trap or fishing device is found in the fresh waters of the State of Florida and the owner of the same shall not be known to the officer finding the same, such officer shall immediately procure from the County Judge an order forfeiting said net, trap or fishing device to the Department of Game and Freshwater Fish.

See id. at 160, 7 So. 2d at 125. Return to text.

[135] See id. at 158, 7 So. 2d at 124. Return to text.

[136] FLA. CONST. art. I, § 9. Return to text.

[137] 239 U.S. 394 (1915) (stating that even if a business is not a nuisance per se, it is clearly within the police power of the State to regulate it, and to that end to declare that it is a nuisance). Return to text.

[138] Malloy, 150 Fla. at 161, 7 So. 2d at 125. Return to text.

[139] See id. at 162, 7 So. 2d at 125-26. Return to text.

[140] See id. at 164, 7 So. 2d at 126. Return to text.

[141] Id. at 165, 7 So. 2d at 126. Return to text.

[142] Id. at 164, 7 So. 2d at 126. Return to text.

[143] See id. Return to text.

[144] See Frank Sargeant, "Netscam" Saga Gets Increasingly Tangled, TAMPA TRIB., May 10, 1996, at D5. Return to text.

[145] See Holland v. Roberts, 149 Fla. 308, 322, 5 So. 2d 608, 614 (1942). Return to text.

[146] Id. at 319, 5 So. 2d at 613. Return to text.

[147] See id. at 321, 5 So. 2d at 614. Return to text.

[148] See id. at 322, 5 So. 2d at 614. Return to text.

[149] See State v. Raffield, 515 So. 2d 283, 284 (Fla. 1st DCA 1987). Return to text.

[150] See id. Return to text.

[151] See id. Return to text.

[152] FLA. STAT. § 370.08(3) (1995). Return to text.

[153] See Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 284. Return to text.

[154] See Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, 16 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1882 (1994). Return to text.

[155] See Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 284. Return to text.

[156] Id. at 285. Return to text.

[157] 377 So. 2d 685 (Fla. 1979). Return to text.

[158] See id. at 688. ("[T]o the extent that [the statute,] as it relates to possession of 'small shrimp,' may affect interstate or foreign commerce, we find that this result is purely incidental, indirect, and beyond the purpose of the legislation and does not invalidate the statute."). Return to text.

[159] See Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 285. Return to text.

[160] See id. Return to text.

[161] See id. Return to text.

[162] 451 So. 2d 477 (Fla. 1984). Return to text.

[163] Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 285-86. Return to text.

[164] Id. at 286. Return to text.

[165] See id. Return to text.

[166] See id. Return to text.

[167] See id. Return to text.

[168] 313 U.S. 69 (1941). Return to text.

[169] See Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 286. Return to text.

[170] See Skiriotes, 313 U.S. at 77. Return to text.

[171] See Raffield, 515 So. 2d at 286. Return to text.

[172] See Graham v. Wolmer, 505 So. 2d 637 (Fla. 4th DCA 1987). Return to text.

[173] Id. at 638. Return to text.

[174] See id. at 637. Return to text.

[175] See Wolmer, 505 So. 2d at 638. Return to text.

[176] See id. Wolmer did not contest the state's appeal. Return to text.

[177] Id. Return to text.

[178] Id. at 639. Return to text.

[179] See id. Return to text.

[180] Id. Return to text.

[181] Although the amendment is supposed to be called Limiting Marine Net Fishing, most literature on the subject refers to it as the fish net ban. See, e.g., Bob Hutchinson, An Industry is Watching Florida and Its Net Ban, VIRGINIAN- PILOT, Nov. 13, 1994, at C15. Return to text.

[182] See Larry Kaplow, Ruling Limits Trawl Nets to Shrimpers, PALM BCH. POST, Nov. 30, 1995, at 12A. Return to text.

[183] See Beyond the Net Ban, ST. PETE. TIMES, Nov. 16, 1994, at 14A. Return to text.

[184] See State v. Raffield, 515 So. 2d 283, 286 (Fla. 1st DCA 1987). Return to text.

[185] See Bruce v. Malloy, 150 Fla. 157, 167, 7 So. 2d 123, 127 (1942). Return to text.

[186] See Holland v. Roberts, 149 Fla. 308, 321, 5 So. 2d 608, 614 (1942). Return to text.

[187] See Graham v. Wolmer, 505 So. 2d 637 (Fla. 4th DCA 1987). Return to text.

[188] State v. Organized Fishermen of Fla., 503 So. 2d 935, 938 (Fla. 1st DCA 1987). Return to text.

[189] See id. Return to text.

[190] See id. at 939. Return to text.

[191] See Williams, supra note 108. Return to text.

[192] A shrimp trawl is a conical shaped, bag-type net that is dragged along the ocean bottom with the shrimp being funneled through the open mouth of the net and captured in the closed end or bag of the net. Return to text.

[193] FLA. CONST. art. X, § 16. Return to text.

[194] See Department of Envtl. Prot. v. Millender, 666 So. 2d 882 (Fla. 1996). Return to text.

[195] See id. Return to text.

[196] See id. at 884. Return to text.

[197] See id. Return to text.

[198] FLA. CONST. art. X, § 16(b)(2). Return to text.

[199] Id. § 16(c)(2). Return to text.

[200] See Millender, 666 So. 2d at 885. The parties agreed that the appropriate formula is C (circumference) x SH (slant height)/2 and that the circumference equals 65.75 feet. See id. n.3. Return to text.

[201] See id. Return to text.

[202] See id. Return to text.

[203] See id. n.5. Return to text.

[204] See id. at 884. Return to text.

[205] See id. at 885. Return to text.

[206] See id. n.6. Return to text.

[207] See id. Return to text.

[208] See id. at 886. Return to text.

[209] Id. Return to text.

[210] See id. Return to text.

[211] Id. Return to text.

[212] See State v. Organized Fishermen of Fla., 503 So. 2d 935, 938-39 (Fla. 1st DCA 1987). Return to text.

[213] See FLA. CONST. art. 10, § 16 (providing in relevant part: "the people hereby enact limitations on marine net fishing . . . ."). Return to text.

[214] Millender, 666 So. 2d at 887. Return to text.

[215] Id. Return to text.

[216] Id. Return to text.

[217] See id. at 886. Return to text.

[218] See id. ("[E]ach subsection, sentence, and clause must be read in light of the others to form a congruous whole so as not to render any language superfluous."). Return to text.

[219] See Steve Waters, Emergency Tarp Ban Proposed, FT. LAUD. SUN SENT., Oct. 1, 1996, at C6. Return to text.

[220] Id. Return to text.

[221] See id. Return to text.

[222] See Frank Sargeant, Some Holes Have Been Found in Net Ban, TAMPA TRIB., Aug. 4, 1996, at C16. Return to text.

[223] Id. Return to text.

[224] Tarp Fishing, SARASOTA HERALD- TRIB., Aug. 26, 1996, at A8. Return to text.

[225] Id. Return to text.

[226] Advisory Op. to the Att'y Gen. re Limited Marine Net Fishing, 620 So. 2d 997, 1000 (Fla. 1993) (McDonald, J., concurring). Return to text.

[227] See id. Return to text.

[228] Id. Return to text.

[229] Id. Return to text.

[230] See id. Return to text.

[231] Id. Return to text.

[232] See id. Return to text.

[233] See David Olinger, Fisherman Wins Case By A Mile, ST. PETE. TIMES, Sept. 11, 1996, at B1. The MFC defines the zone covered by the ban in nautical miles, which are 796 feet longer than statute miles. Return to text.

[234] Id. Return to text.

[235] See Don Wilson, Net Result of Commercial Ban Yields Big Catches for Anglers, ORLANDO SENT., Jan. 19, 1996, at C11 (stating that Pompano fishers hoped to see more of the commercial catch diverted to their hooks). Return to text.

[236] See id. Return to text.

[237] See id. Return to text.

[238] See id. Perhaps this problem could lead to another ballot initiative entitled the "Limiting Marine Rod Fishing" initiative. Return to text.