[*] Former Dean and Professor of Law, Florida State University College of Law. Return to text.
 See FLA. STAT. § 25.031 (1945). Return to text.
 154 So. 2d 169 (Fla. 1963). Return to text.
 See Green v. American Tobacco Co., 409 F.2d 1166 (5th Cir. 1969). Return to text.
 No. 95-00934-CA (Fla. Duval Cty. Cir. Ct. Aug. 9, 1996). Return to text.
 See Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., 505 U.S. 504 (1992). Return to text.
 See id. at 530. Return to text.
 No. 965-245 (Cal. San Francisco Cty. Sup. Ct. Sept. 1, 1995). Return to text.
 The Supreme Court of California recently denied review of an intermediate appellate court decision upholding the judgment entered on the verdict for the plaintiffs. See Horowitz v. Lorillard Inc., No. A072695 (Cal. Ct. App. Aug. 12, 1997), cert. denied, 66 U.S.L.W. 3604 (U.S. May 18, 1998) (No. 97-1459). Return to text.
 The next two cases tried by the attorneys who represented the plaintiffs in Carter resulted in defense verdicts. See Raulerson v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Corp., 95-1820-CA (Fla. Duval Cty. Cir. Ct. May 5, 1997); Karbiwinyk v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., No. 95-04697-CA (Fla. Duval Cty. Cir. Ct. Oct. 31, 1997). Return to text.
 See Amchem Prod., Inc. v. Windsor, 117 S. Ct. 2231 (1997) (finding class action certification inappropriate for settlement purposes of asbestos-related claims); Castano v. American Tobacco Co., 84 F.3d 734 (5th Cir. 1996) (disapproving certification of a class of smokers in a nationwide class action against tobacco companies). Return to text.
 See, e.g., R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. v. Engle, 672 So. 2d 39 (Fla. 3d DCA 1996) (upholding class certification for all Florida citizens and residents who suffer harm as a result of addiction to cigarettes containing nicotine). Return to text.
 No. 91-49738-CA (22) (Fla. Dade Cty. Cir. Ct. Oct. 10, 1997) (settlement agreement). Return to text.
 State v. American Tobacco Co., No. CL 95-1466 AH (Fla. Palm Beach Cty. Cir. Ct. Nov. 12, 1997) (order quashing liens filed by counsel and directing parties and counsel to comply with attorney fees provisions of settlement agreement). Return to text.
 See FLA. STAT. § 383.011 (1997). Return to text.