[*] Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center. This Article is the published version of the 1997 Mason Ladd Lecture delivered at the Florida State University College of Law. Return to text.

[1] See RONALD DWORKIN, Liberalism and Justice, in A MATTER OF PRINCIPLE 179, 188-204 (1985); ISAIAH BERLIN, Two Concepts of Liberty, in FOUR ESSAYS ON LIBERTY 118, 131-34 (1970). These may be the best modern statements of the universalist and individualist assumptions at the heart of contemporary liberalism. Return to text.

[2] 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Return to text.

[3] 381 U.S. 479 (1965). Return to text.

[4] See RONALD DWORKIN, The Moral Reading and the Majoritarian Premise, in FREEDOM'S LAW: THE MORAL READING OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION 1, 21-26 (1996). Return to text.

[5] 163 U.S. 537 (1896). Return to text.

[6] See Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976); Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973); Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971). Return to text.

[7] 517 U.S. 620 (1996). Return to text.

[8] See Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Return to text.

[9] 405 U.S. 438 (1972). Return to text.

[10] 410 U.S. 113 (1973). Return to text.

[11] 505 U.S. 833 (1992). Return to text.

[12] See generally DERRICK BELL, AND WE ARE NOT SAVED: THE ELUSIVE QUEST FOR RACIAL JUSTICE (1987) (exploring through allegory why racial inequality has yet to be achieved in the United States); Angela P. Harris, Race and Essentialism in Feminist Legal Theory, 42 STAN. L. REV. 581 (1990) (critiquing feminist legal theorists who posit a universal women's experience because it works to subvert and erase the experience of women of different races, classes, and sexual orientation); Mari J. Matsuda, Voices of America: Accent, Antidiscrimination Law and Jurisprudence for the Last Reconstruction, 100 YALE L.J. 1329 (1991) (arguing that linguistic tolerance should be a goal of the law and offering a reinterpretation of Title VII to address the subordination of linguistic difference); Mari J. Matsuda, Looking to the Bottom: Critical Legal Studies and Reparations, 22 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 323 (1987) (stating that Critical Legal Studies should look to the experience of non-whites in reconstructing legal concepts and strategies); Robin West, Jurisprudence and Gender, 55 U. CHI. L. REV. 1 (1988) (arguing that conceptions of "human nature" in modern jurisprudence are untrue of women's lives). Return to text.

[13] See MICHAEL J. SANDEL, DEMOCRACY'S DISCONTENT: AMERICA IN SEARCH OF A PUBLIC PHILOSOPHY (1996); PLURALISM, JUSTICE, AND EQUALITY (David Miller & Michael Walzer eds., 1995); MILTON C. REGAN, JR., FAMILY LAW AND THE PURSUIT OF INTIMACY (1993). Return to text.

[14] See Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954). Return to text.

[15] See Mississippi Univ. for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718 (1982); Caban v. Mohammed, 441 U.S. 380 (1979); Parham v. Hughes, 441 U.S. 347 (1979); Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976); Geduldig v. Aiello, 417 U.S. 484 (1974); Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973); Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971). Return to text.

[16] See Clark v. Jeter, 486 U.S. 456 (1988); Trimble v. Gordon, 430 U.S. 762 (1977); Levy v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 68 (1968). Return to text.

[17] See In re Griffiths, 413 U.S. 717 (1973); Sugarman v. Dougall, 413 U.S. 634 (1973); Graham v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 365 (1971). Return to text.

[18] See Phoenix v. Kolodziejski, 399 U.S. 204 (1970); Kramer v. Union Free Sch. Dist. No. 15, 395 U.S. 621 (1969); Harper v. Virginia Bd. of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966). Return to text.

[19] See PATRICIA J. WILLIAMS, THE ALCHEMY OF RACE AND RIGHTS (1991). Return to text.

[20] See, e.g., Charles R. Lawrence III, Each Other's Harvest: Diversity's Deeper Meaning, 31 U.S.F. L. REV. 757 (1997) (arguing that diversity is an essential tool for eradicating racism). Return to text.

[21] See Wendy W. Williams, Notes from a First Generation, 1989 U. CHI. LEGAL F. 99, 110-11 (1989). Return to text.

[22] See CATHARINE A. MACKINNON, On Difference and Dominance: On Sex Discrimination, in FEMINISM UNMODIFIED: DISCOURSES ON LIFE AND LAW 32 (1987) (critiquing liberal feminism's adherence to equality as sameness). Return to text.

[23] See Christine A. Littleton, Reconstructing Sexual Equality, 75 CAL. L. REV. 1279, 1326-27 (1987) (arguing that the workplace should not treat women's biological difference punitively, but should render it costless by not depriving pregnant women of money, status, and opportunity); Wendy W. Williams, Equality's Riddle: Pregnancy and the Equal Treatment/Special Treatment Debate, 13 N.Y.U. REV. L. & SOC. CHANGE 325, 327 (1984-85) (advocating that the legal treatment of illness and disability should be readjusted to accommodate pregnant workers, thus guaranteeing women's equality in the workplace). Return to text.

[24] See, e.g., Susan Estrich, Rape, 95 YALE L.J. 1087 (1986) (arguing that masculine conceptions of violence and self defense have skewed rape law against women's interests). But see KATIE ROIPHE, THE MORNING AFTER: SEX, FEAR, AND FEMINISM ON CAMPUS 89-90 (1993) ("Rules and laws based on the premise that all women need protection from all men, because they are so much weaker, serve only to reinforce the image of women as powerless."). Return to text.

[25] See, e.g., Mary Anne C. Case, Disaggregating Gender From Sex and Sexual Orientation: The Effeminate Man in the Law and Feminist Jurisprudence, 105 YALE L.J. 1, 3-4 (1995) (arguing that Title VII should, if correctly applied, provide protection against the discrimination of effeminate men for exhibiting characteristics associated with femininity). Return to text.

[26] See, e.g., Estrich, supra note 24. Return to text.

[27] See, e.g., Mary E. Becker, Maternal Feelings: Myth, Taboo, and Child Custody, 1 S. CAL. REV. L. & WOMEN'S STUD. 133 (1992) (advocating a preference for maternal deference in child custody cases). Return to text.

[28] See, e.g., MARY FIELD BELENKY ET AL., WOMEN'S WAYS OF KNOWING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF, VOICE, AND MIND (1986) (examining women's ways of knowing); Joan C. Williams, Deconstructing Gender, 87 MICH. L. REV. 797, 810-11 (1989). Return to text.

[29] See Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483, 494 n.11 (1954). Return to text.

[30] See Charles R. Lawrence III, If He Hollers Let Him Go: Regulating Racist Speech on Campus, 1990 DUKE L.J. 431, 439-41 (1990) (positing that Brown v. Board of Education can be read as regulating the content of racist speech and, in turn, as an exception to the general rule that content regulations are unconstitutional). Return to text.

[31] See id. Return to text.

[32] For a compelling critique of heat of passion defenses on this and other grounds, see Victoria Nourse, Passion's Progress: Modern Law Reform and the Provocation Defense, 106 YALE L.J. 1331 (1997). Return to text.

[33] See SUSAN ESTRICH, REAL RAPE 81-82 (1987). Return to text.

[34] See United States v. Virginia, 116 S. Ct. 2264 (1996). Return to text.

[35] See Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989). Return to text.

[36] For the best attempt to resist this tendency, see Case, supra note 25, at 3 ("So long as stereotypically feminine behavior, from wearing dresses and jewelry to speaking softly or in a high-pitched voice, to nurturing or raising children, is forced into a female ghetto, it may continue to be devalued."). Return to text.

[37] See Califano v. Goldfarb, 430 U.S. 199, 217 (1977); Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677, 690-91 (1973). Justice Ginsburg argued these cases for the ACLU. Return to text.

[38] See Mary E. Becker, Prince Charming: Abstract Equality, 1987 SUP. CT. REV. 201, 202-09 (1987). Return to text.

[39] See id. at 201-02. Return to text.

[40] See Nourse, supra note 32. Return to text.

[41] See Case, supra note 25, at 86. Return to text.

[42] See Wendy W. Williams, The Equality Crisis: Some Reflections on Culture, Courts, and Feminism, 14 WOMEN'S RTS. L. REP. 151, 170 (1992). Return to text.

[43] See Vacco v. Quill, 117 S. Ct. 2293 (1997); Washington v. Glucksburg, 117 S. Ct. 2258 (1997). Return to text.

[44] See Ronald Dworkin et al., Assisted Suicide: The Philosopher's Brief, N.Y. REV. OF BOOKS, Mar. 27, 1997, at 41, 43-44. Return to text.

[45] See Ronald Dworkin, Sex, Death, and the Courts, N.Y. REV. OF BOOKS, Aug. 8, 1996, at 44, 50; Ronald Dworkin, The Moral Reading of the Constitution, N.Y. REV. OF BOOKS, Mar. 21, 1996, at 46, 47. Return to text.

[46] See Anita Allen, Against Drug Use (1996) (unpublished manuscript, on file with author). Return to text.

[47] See Zablocki v. Redhail, 434 U.S. 374 (1978) (right to marry); Moore v. City of East Cleveland, Ohio, 431 U.S. 494 (1977) (right of family members to reside together); Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) (right to abortion); Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965) (right to use birth control); Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510 (1925) (right to private school education); Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923) (right to education providing foreign language instruction). Return to text.

[48] See REGAN, supra note 13, at 94-96. Return to text.

[49] See Reva B. Siegel, "The Rule of Love": Wife Beating as Prerogative and Privacy, 105 YALE L.J. 2117, 2118-19 (1996). Return to text.

[50] See id. at 2206-07. Return to text.

[51] See id. at 2150-74. Return to text.

[52] See Jana B. Singer, The Privatization of Family Law, 1992 WIS. L. REV. 1443, 1478-88 (1992). Return to text.

[53] See id. at 1460. Return to text.

[54] See Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969).

55See ISAIAH BERLIN, John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life, in FOUR ESSAYS ON LIBERTY 173, 195 (1969); RONALD DWORKIN, MacKinnon's Words, in FREEDOM'S LAW: THE MORAL READING OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION 227, 228, 238 (1996). Return to text.

[56] See EILEEN L. MCDONAGH, BREAKING THE ABORTION DEADLOCK: FROM CHOICE TO CONSENT 8 (1996). Return to text.

[57] See id. at 9. Return to text.

[58] See ANDREW SULLIVAN, VIRTUALLY NORMAL: AN ARGUMENT ABOUT HOMOSEXUALITY 178-85 (1995). Return to text.

[59] See Baehr v. Lewin, 852 P.2d 44, 67 (Haw. 1993) (holding a Hawaii statute that restricted marriage to male and female partners to be subject to strict scrutiny analysis and unconstitutional on its face); Baehr v. Miike, No. CIV.91-1394, 1996 WL 694235, at *18 (Haw. Cir. Ct. Dec. 3, 1996) (finding no compelling state interest supports the Hawaii ban on same-sex marriage), aff'd, 950 P.2d 1234 (Haw. 1997). Return to text.

[60] See Lewin, 852 P.2d at 67; William N. Eskridge, Jr., A History of Same-Sex Marriage, 79 VA. L. REV. 1419, 1425 (1993). Return to text.

[61] See John Finnis, Is Natural Law Theory Compatible With Limited Government, in NATURAL LAW, LIBERALISM, AND MORALITY: CONTEMPORARY ESSAYS 1, 15 (Robert P. George ed., 1996). Return to text.

[62] See Stephen Macedo, Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind, 84 GEO. L.J. 261, 287-88 (1995). Return to text.

[63] See ESTRICH, supra note 33. Return to text.

[64] See PETER SINGER, HOW ARE WE TO LIVE: ETHICS IN AN AGE OF SELF INTEREST 143 (1995); PETER SINGER, THE EXPANDING CIRCLE: ETHICS AND SOCIOBIOLOGY 33 (1981). Return to text.